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2021年考研《英语(一)》真题及答案
  • 年份:2021年
  • 类型:历年真题
  • 总分:100分
  • 时长:180分钟
  • 题量:48
  • 做题人数:0人
题型介绍
Section Ⅰ、Use of English(Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  • Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It___1___in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then___2___starts to slowly decline as we age. But___3___aging is inevitable. scientists are finding that certain changes in brain function may not be.
    One study found that muscle loss and the___4___of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the___5___that lifestyle factors might help prevent or___6___this type of decline.
    The researchers looked at data that___7___measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and___8___that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people___9___higher measures of abdominal fat___10___worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years___11___.
    For women, the association may be___12___to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be___13___. It is hoped that future studies could___14___these differences and perhaps lead to different for men and women.
    ___16___, there are steps you can___17___to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental___18___. The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your___19___of aerobic exercise and following a Mediterranean-style___20___that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartA(Read the following four texts.Answer the questions after each text by choosingA,B C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
  • How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 percent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index(CPI)measure of inflation.
    Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. Why, the argument goes, should a car-driving pensioner from Lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker from Surrey? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.
    However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel. The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.
    The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate. This should form part of a wider package of measures to address the long-running problems on Britain’s railways. Yes, more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartB(Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 point)
  • In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence(AI)is typically depicted as something sinister that will upend our way of life. When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-gloom mass unemployment predictions?
    A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services found that companies currently use AI more often in computer-to-computer activities than in automating human activities. One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempt.
    Here are a few other ways Al is aiding companies without replacing employees.
    Better Hiring Practices
    Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from hiring decisions. There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are much more biased than what AI does, says Domingos. In addition,(41)______One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor. It uses analytics to help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process.
    More Effective Marketing
    Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open rates. One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10 percent when it comes to email open rates. This can mean millions more in revenue.(42)______These are"tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,"says Patrick H. Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT.
    Saving Customers Money
    Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills, saving them money while helping the environment. Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut down on the cost of electricity. Insurance companies meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI models that more accurately access risk.(43)______.
    Improved Accuracy
    “Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more valuable,” says Winston. It“helps people make smarter decisions.”(44)______.
    Protecting and Maintaining Infrastructure
    A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen.
    “If they fail first and then you fix them, it’s very expensive,” says Domingos.“(45)______.”

    A.I replace the boring parts of your job. If you’re doing research, you can have AI go out and look for relevant sources and information that otherwise you just wouldn’t have time for.

    B.One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review contracts during an audit. This process, along with employees reviewing the contracts, is faster and more accurate.

    C.There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes advertising performance across multiple channels like Adwords, Bing and social media and makes adjustments or suggestions about where advertising funds will be most effective.

    D.You want to predict if something needs attention now and point to where it’s useful for [employees] to go to.

    E.“Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much,” says
    Domingos, “or they would charge them too little and then it would cost [the company] money.”

    F.We’re also giving our customers better channels versus picking up the phone…to accomplish something beyond human scale.

    G.AI looks at resumes in greater numbers than humans would be able to, and selects the more promising candidates.

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartC(Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  • World War II was the watershed event for higher education in modern western societies(46)Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 35% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education.(47)And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending to a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly though unevenly in the 1970s and 1980s.
    The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth:(48)in many countries of Western Europe the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the decade of the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second, growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third, growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.
    Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake. For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a very large proportion of all the members of an institution are new recruits, they threaten to overwhelm the processes whereby recruits to a more slowly growing system are inducted into its value system and learn its norms and forms. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years, (49)and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty and its standards. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution-this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan.(50)High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s, European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with the empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well. They also saw higher levels of student discontent reflecting the weakening of traditional forms of academic communities.

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

Section Ⅲ、Writing PartA(Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  • Directions:
    One foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in China. Please write an email to him/her to make some suggestions.
    You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
    Do not use your own name in the email. Use "Li Ming"instead.(10 points)

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

Section Ⅲ、Writing PartB(Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
  • Directions:
    Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below. In your essay, you should
    1)describe the picture briefly,
    2)interpret its intended meaning, and
    3)give your comments.
    You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points)

    【正确答案-参考解析】:参加考试可见

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